1 Canadian Institute for Health Information, Understanding Emergency Department Wait Times: Access to Inpatient Beds and Patient Flow, Ottawa,Ont., 2007. Available from: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/Emergency_Department_Wait_Times_III_2007_e.pdf

2 Data Source: National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, Canadian Institute for Health Information

3 Ontario Ministry of Finance. Ontario population projections update, 2015-2041—III. Projections results. Spring 2016 [cited 2016 Aug 9]. Available from: http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/economy/demographics/projections/

4 Melady D. Geri-EM personalized e-learning in geriatric emergency medicine.Schwartz-Reisman Emergency Centre, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto; 2013 [cited 2016 Aug 9]. Available from: http://geri-em.com/

5 Canadian Institute for Health Information, Emergency Department Visits 2014-2015, Ottawa, Ont. Available from: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/NACRS_ED_QuickStats_Infosheet_2014-15_ENweb.pdf

6 Beveridge R, Clarke B, Janes L, Savage N, Thompson J, Dodd G, Murray M,Nijssen-Jordan C, Warren D, Vadeboncoeur A. Implementation Guidelines,Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, 2016 [cited 2016 Aug 9]. Available from: http://caep.ca/resources/ctas/implementation-guidelines

7 Physician Hospital Care Committee, a tripartite committee of the Ontario Hospital Association, the Ontario Medical Association and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Improving Access to Emergency Care: Addressing System Issues, August 2006. [cited 2016 Aug 9]. Available from: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/common/ministry/publications/reports/improving_access/improving_access.pdf

8 Schull MJ, Vermeulen M, Guttmann A, Stukel T. Better performance on length-of-stay benchmarks associated with reduced risk following emergency department discharge: an observational cohort study. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2015; 17(3):253-262

9 Guttmann A, Schull MJ, Vermeulen MJ, Stukel TA. Association between waiting times and short term mortality and hospital admission after departure from emergency department: population based cohort study from Ontario,Canada. BMJ 2011; 342:d2983

10 Bernstein SL, Aronsky D, Duseja R, Epstein S, Handel D, Hwang U, McCarthy M, McConnell KJ, Pines JM, Rathlev N, Schafermeyer R, Zwemer F, Schull M, Asplin BR. The effect of emergency department crowding on clinically oriented outcomes. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Emergency Department Crowding Task Force (2008). [cited 2016 Aug 10]. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00295.x/full

11 Data Source: Emergency Department Reporting System (EDRS) (April 2008 to October 2009) & National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) Level1 (November 2009 to March 2015, provided by Access to Care, Cancer Care Ontario

12 Rowe BH, Channan P, Bulllard M, Blitz S, Saunders D, Roseychuk RJ, LariH, Craig WR, Holroyd BR. (2006). Characteristics of patients who leave emergency departments without being seen. Academic Emergency Medicine.13 (8): 848 – 852.

13 Data Source: Health Care Experience Survey, provided by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care

14 Affleck A, Parks P, Drummond A, Rowe BH, Ovens HJ. Emergency department overcrowding and access block. (2013). Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine. 15(6): 359-370. [cited 2016 Aug 12]. Available from:http://caep.ca/sites/caep.ca/files/caep/PositionStatments/edoc_document_final_eng.pdf

15 Auditor General of Ontario, Hospital emergency departments, 2010 Annual Report of the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario (Chapter. 3, Section.3.05), 2010. cited 2016 Aug 10]. Available from: http://www.auditor.on.ca/en/content/annualreports/arreports/en10/305en10.pdf

16 Cancer Care Ontario, Wait Time Information System and Bed Census Summary.

17 Mian O, Pong R. Does better access to FPs decrease the likelihood of emergency department use? Results of the Primary Care Access Survey.Canadian Family Physician. 2012. 58 (11); e658-e666.

18 North West Local Health Integration Network. 2015–2016 North West Local Health Integration Network Annual Business Plan. [cited 2016Aug 10]. Available from: http://www.northwestlhin.on.ca/accountability/annualbusinessplan.aspx

19 Canadian Institute for Health Information, Sources of Potentially Avoidable Emergency Department Visits, Ottawa, Ont. 2014. Available from: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/ED_Report_ForWeb_EN_Final.pdf

20 Schull MJ, Kiss A, Szalai JP. The effect of low-complexity patients on emergency department waiting times. Annals of emergency medicine.2007. 49 (3); 257 – 264 [cited 2016 Aug 10]. Available from: http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(06)00884-5/pdf

21 Canadian Institute for Health Information. Hospital cost drivers technical report. What factors have determined hospital expenditure trends in Canada?Ottawa, Ont.: CIHI, 2012 [cited 2016 Aug 10]. Available from: https://www.cihi.ca/en/hospital_costdriver_tech_en.pdf

22 Health Quality Ontario. Quality in primary care: setting a foundation for monitoring and reporting in Ontario. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario;2015

23 Data Source: The Commonwealth Fund. Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey 2013 of the General Public

24 Data Source: Statistics Canada. Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Ontario) www.statcan.gc.ca/tables_tableaux/sum-som/101/cst01/demo62g-eng.htm